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Only in that way, he believed, could another great war be prevented [ Instead, all it requires is mediating or replacing anarchy with community. In other words, world government may not be the only way out of anarchy. International community, a formal or informal collective and cooperative set of social relationships among sovereign nation-states, may be an alternative to world government and an alternative to international anarchy.
Or somewhat less optimistically they could at least put into place rules and laws to temper conflict and facilitate cooperation [ The East-West rivalry was over, arms control agreements seemed to proliferate faster than armaments, democracy spread internationally, and human rights and humanitarian intervention were given practical and not just rhetorical emphasis by many sovereign nation-states [ A era digital, é claro, se consolidou na década de No final desta mesma década, estes [aparelhos] 9 tinham se tornado lugar comum [ Grandes transformações estavam a caminho e iriam alterar completamente a maneira como as pessoas interagiam e o mundo se organizava.
By the end of the decade we had them all [ This quieter revolution, still in its infancy, is a scientific and technological one. Nós vimos que a internet foi inicialmente pensada como um espaço dentro do qual as pessoas pudessem trabalhar para compartilhar o seu conhecimento. This was seen as being a powerful tool, in that. KNIGHT, E se o trabalho técnico de Swartz foi significativo para auxiliar o surgimento de uma cultura cibernética voltada para o bem comum, sua importância como um inspirador e instigador foi ainda maior.
Gostaria de ler os artigos descrevendo as mais famosas descobertas da ciência? As leis sob as quais elas funcionam exigem isso - seus investidores se revoltariam com qualquer coisa diferente. By working on the technical standards for the Creative Commons, he helped extend the legal framework behind the free software movement to other creative endeavors.
Ninguém pode se dar ao luxo de ignorar a presença do mercado digital e o seu crescimento exponencial. But like all power, there are those who want to keep it for themselves. The world's entire scientific and cultural heritage, published over centuries in books and journals, is increasingly being digitized and locked up by a handful of private corporations. Want to read the papers featuring the most famous results of the sciences? You'll need to send enormous amounts to publishers like Reed Elsevier.
The laws under which they operate require it — their shareholders would revolt at anything less. And the politicians they have bought off back them, passing laws giving them the exclusive power to decide who can make copies. There is no justice in following unjust laws. It's time to come into the light and, in the grand tradition of civil disobedience, declare our opposition to this private theft of public culture.
Will you join us? Analysts suggest that there is no way of making the Internet " percent safe," therefore, organisations and government are forced to implement security policies, technological software and regulations in order to control unauthorised intrusion into corporate networks . Corporate data are at risk when they are exposed to the Internet [ Um ano depois, o impacto do 11 de setembro tem sido sentido de diversas maneiras.
Eles afirmam também que aumentaram o uso de e-mails por causa dos ataques terroristas. For tens of millions of Americans, the Internet became a channel for anguished and prayerful gatherings, for heartfelt communication through email, and for vital information.
These hard-hit Americans are more willing than other Internet users to agree with government decisions to remove or withhold information from the Internet. They are also more likely to say they have increased their use of email because of the terror attacks.
Carr, um acadêmico inglês de Relações Internacionais. Os liberais acreditavam erroneamente que elas poderiam se basear na harmonia de interesses entre países e nações.
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Segundo Carr, o ponto de vista correto é o oposto: devemos assumir que existem profundos conflitos de interesse entre países e pessoas [ Morgenthau, outro acadêmico de grande importância para as teorias realistas, afirma em seu livro "A Política entre as Nações" que "[ Carr, a British IR scholar.
They erroneously believed that such relations could be based on a harmony of interest between countries and people.
According to Carr, the correct starting point is the opposite one: we should assume that there are profound conflicts of interest both between countries and between people [ And humans were self-interested and power-seeking and that could easily result in aggression [ Por isso, todo Estado deve estar constantemente pronto para contra-atacar, sob a pena de pagar o preço da sua fraqueza. WALTZ, , p. Because each state is the final judge of its own cause, any state may at any time use force to implement its policies.
Because any state may at any time use force, all states must constantly be ready either to counter force with force or to pay the cost of weakness.
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The requirements of state action are, in this view, imposed by the circumstances in which all states exist. Sobre os atores envolvidos nos conflitos cibernéticos, eles afirmam que a guerra cibernética "[ Muitas nações tomam parte do assalto [sem se dar conta disto]. A ideia de 'Guerra Cibernética' começou a ganhar popularidade ao longo da primeira década do século XXI, conforme sugerem as estatísticas de busca pelo termo 'cyber warfare' Guerra Cibernética fornecidas pelo 'Google Trends' ferramenta que permite consultar percentualmente e ao longo do tempo a quantidade de entradas para um determinado termo no sítio de buscas da empresa 'Google'.
Figura 2 - buscas realizadas no período de a para o termo 'cyber warfare' na ferramenta de pesquisa da empresa 'Google'. What we have seen so far is far from indicative of what can be done. Most of these well- known skirmishes in cyberspace used only primitive cyber weapons with the notable exception of the Israeli operation. It is a reasonable guess that the attackers did not want to reveal their more sophisticated capabilities, yet. What the United States and other nations are capable of doing in a cyber war could devastate a modern nation.
Cyber war happens at the speed of light. As the photons of the attack packets stream down fiber-optic cable, the time between the launch of an attack and its effect is barely measurable, thus creating risks for crisis decision makers.
Cyber war is global. In any conflict, cyber attacks rapidly go global, as covertly acquired or hacked computers and servers throughout the world are kicked into service.
Many nations are quickly drawn in. Cyber war skips the battlefield. Cyber war has begun. This ongoing nature of cyber war, the blurring of peace and war, adds a dangerous new dimension of instability. A ameaça de guerra cibernética tem sido muito exagerada, afirma um conceituado especialista em segurança digital. Bruce Schneier claims that emotive rhetoric around the term does not match the reality.
He warned that using sensational phrases such as "cyber armageddon" only inflames the situation [ They include blackouts in Brazil in , attacks by China on Google in and the Stuxnet virus that attacked Iran's nuclear facilities. He also pointed to the fallout from Wikileaks and the hacking of Republican vice-presidential candidate Sarah Palin's e-mail.
We don't have good definitions of what cyber war is, what it looks like and how to fight it," said Mr Schneier. When you look at the conflict environment - military to military - command and control is always part of the thing. Don't make it something that it is not," Mr Schmidt told a small group of reporters [ Para os liberais, pelo menos até certo ponto, isto representava um ressurgimento das suas ideias e valores.
Essas relações oferereceram o ponto de partida para uma nova tentativa dos liberais em formular uma maneira de pensar o mundo que representasse uma alternativa aos realistas e, ao mesmo tempo, evitasse as excessivas utopias do Idealismo.
Utilizaremos o termo 'neoliberalismo' para identificar 23 esta nova abordagem [ Those relations provided the basis for a new attempt by liberals to formulate an alternative to realist thinking that would avoid the utopian excesses of earlier liberalism.
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Neste espaço geopolítico, muitas das relações entre os países tendiam a acontecer de maneira pacífica e diversificada. They also strive to formulate theories and apply new methods which are scientific.
In short, the debate between liberalism and realism continued, but it was now coloured by the post- international setting and the behaviouralist methodological persuasion. That development entailed a higher level of trade, communication, cultural exchange, and other relations and transactions across borders. This provides the basis for sociological liberalism, a strand of neoliberal thinking which emphasizes the impact of these expanding cross-border activities.
In the s, Karl Deutsch and his associates argued that such interconnecting activities helped create common values and identities among people from different states and paved the way for peaceful, cooperative relations by making war increasingly costly and thus more unlikely. Uma perspectiva que faz com que o poderio militar deixe de ser preponderante para as relações internacionais. Foi na década de que Robert Keohane e Joseph Nye desenvolveram estas ideias. They argued that relationships between Western states including Japan are characterized by complex interdependence: there are many forms of connections between societies in addition to the political relations of governments, including transnational links between business corporations.
Military force is no longer used as an instrument of foreign policy [ In Western democracies, there are other actors besides states, and violent conflict clearly is not on their international agenda. We can call this form of neoliberalism interdependence liberalism. Robert Keohane and Joseph Nye are among the main contributors to this line of thinking. Segundo ele, a história das ideias políticas humanas havia terminado.
A democracia liberal vencera a batalha das ideologias e, daí pra frente, restava-lhe somente se expandir e conquistar todo o planeta. Trata-se de uma boa pergunta que os acadêmicos dentro e de fora do campo das Relações Internacionais têm grande dificuldade em responder. Not only are there no coherent ideological challengers to liberalism, liberalism itself is free of irrational internal contradictions which lead to the collapse of ideologies.
Having no internal contradictions means that liberalism is a finished idea. What is globalization? Globalization has been described as 'a term which can refer to anything from the Internet to a hamburger'.
For neoliberals, 'globalization' is about the benevolent spread of liberal economic, political, and cultural processes, institutions, and practices throughout the world. That was reinforced by the liberal intellectual revolution which had great faith in human reason and rationality. E a velocidade institucional cresceu mais rapidamente até do que a velocidade das mensagens. There has been a vast expansion of such channels as a result of the dramatic fall in the costs of communication over large distances.
It is no longer necessary to be a rich organization to be able to communicate on a real-time basis with people around the globe. Friedman calls this change the "democratization" of technology, finance, and information because diminished costs have made what were once luxuries available to a much broader range of society. But the introduction of hour cable news in and the subsequent emergence of the Internet have made news cycles shorter and have put a larger premium on small advantages in speed [ Institutional velocity reflects not only individual linkages but networks and interconnections among networks.
Entretanto, trata-se de um modelo que se aproxima cada vez mais da realidade em muitas partes do mundo, mesmo através de distâncias transcontinentais; um modelo muito mais fidedigno do que aquelas imagens antigas de política internacional como relações estadocêntricas interessadas somente em força militar e segurança. However, the terrorist attacks in New York and Washington of 11 September , followed by the attacks in Madrid, London, and elsewhere, are a setback for liberal optimism.
On the contrary, power remains important. Even in domains characterized by complex interdependence, politics reflects asymmetrical economic, social, and environmental interdependence, not just among states but also among nonstate actors, and through transgovernmental relations.
Complex interdependence is not a description of the world, but rather an ideal concept abstracting from reality. It is, however, an ideal concept that increasingly corresponds to reality in many parts of the world, even at transcontinental distances - and that corresponds more closely than obsolete images of world politics as simply interstate relations that focus solely on force and security.
O baixo custo de entrada, o anonimato e as assimetrias em vulnerabilidade significam que atores menores têm maior capacidade de exercer [ The low price of entry, anonymity, and asymmetries in vulnerability means that smaller actors have more capacity to exercise [ Hoje em dia um fio de fibra ótica, com diâmetro diminuto, é capaz de transmitir cerca de Em um gigabyte de armazenamento ocupava uma sala inteira, atualmente mais de gigabytes cabem no bolso da sua camisa.
NYE JR, , p. By , China alone had nearly million users. Communications bandwidths are expanding rapidly, and communications costs continue to fall even more rapidly than computing power. As recently as , phone calls over copper wire could carry only one page of information per second; today a thin strand of optical fiber can transmit 90, volumes in a second. In , a gigabyte of storage occupied a room; now gigabytes of storage fits in your shirt pocket.
The amount of digital information increases tenfold every five years. What will this mean for power and governance in the 21st century? In the words of a former State Department director of policy planning, 'the proliferation of information is as much a cause of nonpolarity as is the proliferation of weaponry.
O poder depende do contexto e o ciberpoder depende dos recursos que caracterizam o domínio do ciberespaço. O ciberpoder pode ser utilizado para obter resultados dentro do Ciberespaço ou fazer uso de ciberrecursos para alcançar resultados em outros domínios fora do Ciberespaço.
O autor explicita: "[ O primeiro aspecto ou "face" do poder foi definido por Robert Dahl nos seus estudos em New Haven durante a década de His focus on getting others to do what they would not otherwise do is widely used today even though it covers only part of power behavior.
In , I distinguished hard and soft power along a spectrum from command to co-optive behavior. Hard power behavior rests on coercion and payment. Soft power behavior rests on framing agendas, attraction or persuasion. Mesmo os EUA e muitos países europeus realizam este procedimento de maneira "seletiva".
Governments can take steps to subsidize infrastructure, computer education, and protection of intellectual property that will encourage or discourage the development of capabilities within their borders [ More than 30 states filter for social reasons, blocking content related to topics such as sex, gambling and drugs.
If the filtering is secretive, it is hard for citizens to know what they do not know [ In contrast to sea, air and space, cyber shares three characteristics with land warfare — though in even greater dimensions: the number of players, ease of entry, and opportunity for concealment…On land, dominance is not a readily achievable criterion [ Durante os protestos populares no Iran em , o Twitter e as redes sociais foram essenciais para organizar e divulgar os protestos.
O nível virtual tem sido de grande utilidade também para grupos pequenos em busca de visibilidade para a sua causa ou ideologia. Sometimes they act with government approval and sometimes against them. For example, before the Russian attack on Georgia, any civilian, Russian born or otherwise, aspiring to be a cyber warrior was able to visit pro-Russia websites to download the software and instructions necessary to launch denial of service attacks on Georgia.
During student protests in Iran in , Twitter and social networking sites were crucial for organizing and reporting demonstrations. The U. They were worried that might interfere with how Twitter was being used to organize demonstrations. Six months later, however, an unknown group called the Iranian Cyber Army successfully redirected Twitter traffic to a website with an anti-American message, and in February , the Iranian government blocked most access to Twitter and other sites.
É digno de nota que os atores individuais se beneficiam de vulnerabilidades assimétricas no domínio cibernético quando comparados com governos e grandes organizações. Eles necessitam de um investimento muito pequeno e têm muito pouco a perder ao entrar e sair [do ciberespaço].
NEY JR, , p. As one expert on terrorism describes: 'the key place for radicalization is neither Pakistan nor Yemen nor Afghanistan … but in a solitary experience of a virtual community: the ummah on the Web'.
They have very low investment and little to lose from exit and re-entry. Their major vulnerability is to legal and illegal coercion by governments and organizations if they are apprehended, but only a small per cent are actually caught. In contrast, corporations have important vulnerabilities because of large fixed investments in complex operating system, intellectual property, and reputation.
Similarly, large governments depend on easily disrupted complex systems, political stability, and reputational soft power. While hit and run cyber strikes by individuals are unlikely to bring governments or corporations to their knees, they can impose serious costs of disruption to operations and to reputations with a miniscule investment [ Qualquer ator, desde um 'hacker' adolescente até um Estado, pode causar danos [a outrem] no Ciberespaço.
Conforme afirmou jocosamente certa vez uma charge na revista 'The New Yorker': 50 'na internet, ninguém sabe se você é um cachorro' " , p. One cyber espionage network — GhostNet — was found to be infecting 1, computers in countries, of which 30 percent were high value governmental targets.
Terrorist groups use the web to recruit new members and plan campaigns. Political and environmental activists disrupt web sites of companies and governments.
What is distinctive about power in the cyber domain is not that governments are out of the picture as the early cyber libertarians predicted, but the different power resources that different actors possess, and the narrowing of the gap between state and non state actors in many instances [ Tanto teóricos militares norte-americanos como os chineses têm discutido esses passos mas muito pouco é divulgado publicamente sobre doutrinas ofensivas no ciberespaço [ Their battlefield is cyberspace [ Both American and Chinese military theorists have discussed such steps, but little is publicly stated about offensive cyber doctrines [ Por outro lado, a China - entre outros governos - busca intensamente os benefícios da conectividade [internacional].
Nonetheless, China — and other governments — still seek the economic benefits of connectivity. The tension leads to imperfect compromises. A China, por exemplo, iria perder muito com um ataque que prejudicasse severamente a economia estadunidense e vice-versa. Unlike the single strand of military interdependence that linked the U. China, for example, would itself lose from an attack that severely damaged the American economy, and visa versa.
A primeira guerra separatista aconteceu no período de a e terminou com um cessar fogo mediado pelos russos. O ataque digital contra a Georgia foi coordenado pelo endereços eletrônicos www. Nós queremos viver num mundo livre, livres de agressões e mentiras no ciberespaço. This last site was based on the United Kingdom, created on 9 August of , and kept in operation until 13 August, when it was suspended, return- ing to work after twenty four hours, without the software section and with a inoperative forum [ RIOS et al, , p.
Fotos de ditadores do século XX foram exibidas junto a uma foto do presidente da Georgia na época, Mikheil Saakashvili [ We want to live in a free world and free of aggressions and lies in web space.
You can call us cyber criminals and terrorists, triggering a war and killing people. We demand the end of attacks in what regards to field of information and means, and call to all media and journalists to cover the events ob-jectively. Shadowserver saw the attack against Georgia spread to computers throughout the government after Russian troops entered the Georgian province of South Ossetia. Saakashvili, were placed on the site [ Entretanto, eles deixaram claro que poderiam tê-lo feito se quisessem; eles mostraram que tinham a capacidade de fazer muito mais" afirma Bumgarner.
E a escolha dos alvos foi particularmente significativa. They made the point that they could launch these attacks. They showed they have the capability to do more," Bumgarner said. This mirrors Russian action against Georgia's paramount strategic installation -- the Baku-Ceyhan oil pipeline, by far the biggest reason why the U.
We've discussed here how Russia bombed all around the pipeline without actually hitting it -- a clear message that it could do so if it wished, but would refrain for the moment. Indeed the cyber attack fit into an overall Russian strategy centered on Georgia's oil infrastructure, Bumgarner concludes. O combate terrestre decisivo para a campanha aconteceu com as forças russas e a milícia da Ossétia derrotando as forças militares menos armadas da Georgia na batalha pela cidade de Tskhinvali.
O conflito obrigou cerca de Os dois países assinaram um acordo de cessar-fogo uma semana depois de iniciada a guerra [ And the choice of targets is especially telling.
Official sites in Gori, along with local news sites, were shut down by denial-of-service attacks before the Russian planes got there.
Cyberspace domain operations conducted by the Russian cyber militia supported that effort by denying and degrading the Georgian government s ability to communicate, both internally and with the outside world [ Georgian troops initiated a military attack against South Ossetia and began a massive shelling of the town of Tskhinvali in response to alleged Russian provocation. Russia deployed additional combat troops to South Ossetia and retaliated with bombing raids into Georgian territory. Russia deployed naval forces to formally blockade Georgia and landed naval infantry marines on Abkhaz coast near Georgia.
The decisive ground combat operation of the campaign resulted in mechanized Russian military and Ossetian militia forces defeating the more lightly armed Georgian military forces in the only large-scale major ground combat of the war battle for the town of Tskhinvali.
Georgian tactical military defeat at the battle of Tskhinvali, operational defeat via Russian uncontested invasion of the western part of Georgia, unchallenged naval blockade of Georgia, and Georgian difficulty getting their media message out to the world, led to Georgia's strategic defeat in the war.
The conflict forced approximately 25, Georgian residents to flee from ground combat as refugees into internal displacement. The two countries signed a ceasefire agreement a week later [ Este parece ser o primeiro caso na história de um ataque no domínio cibernético realizado de maneira coordenada com operações de combate nos domínios mais tradicionais de guerra terra, ar, mar e espaço.
Independente disto "[ Três delas eram convencionais - por terra, ar e mar - enquanto a quarta era nova e envolvia ataques através do ciberespaço [ Since then, researchers have tried to find out who masterminded the network strikes - military electronic warriors, patriotic hackers, cyber-crooks - without finding anything definitive.
Three of them were conventional - on the ground, through the air, and by sea. The fourth was new - their attacks via cyberspace It is, quite simply, implausible that the parallel attacks by land and by cyberspace were a coincidence - official denials by Moscow notwithstanding. So as tanks and troops were crossing the border and bombers were flying sorties, Georgian citizens could not access web sites for information and instructions.
Tal qual uma corda que se comprimia ao redor do pescoço russo, a capacidade de defender seus interesses regionais diminuía aceleradamente. Entretanto, um problema significativo se colocava diante dos russos: como realizar um ataque armado à Georgia, um país em processo de se tornar membro da OTAN, sem que a Europa ou os próprios EUA intervenham enviando auxílio militar ou até mesmo tropas?
Em termos comparativos a Georgia é um país ainda incipiente no uso do Ciberespaço. Analisando o mesmo conflito agora sob o ponto de vista neoliberal vide item 2. There were a few suspicions of a nuclear weapons program, but these abated in the decade between the Iranian revolution and the end of the Iran-Iraq war, both of which brought a halt to nuclear activities. As autoridades iranianas atrasaram as inspeções, alteraram as explicações para as discrepâncias encontradas, esvaziaram instalações e, em um caso, Lavizan-Shian, chegaram a destruir completamente uma usina existente.
Three years of intensive inspections by the IAEA revealed significant undeclared Iranian efforts in uranium enrichment including centrifuge, atomic vapor laser and molecular laser isotope separation techniques and separation of plutonium, as well as undeclared imported material. Iranian officials have delayed inspections, changed explanations for discrepancies, cleaned up facilities and in one case, Lavizan- Shian, razed a site.
O stuxnet, nome pelo qual este programa passou a ser conhecido, era diferente de qualquer outra praga virtual criada até o momento. Ao invés de assumir o controle dos computadores-alvo e roubar informações deles, ele invadiu o reino digital com o objetivo de causar danos aos equipamentos externos controlados pelos computadores ['infectados']. Rather than simply hijacking targeted computers or stealing information from them, it escaped the digital realm to wreak physical destruction on equipment the computers controlled.
O stuxnet trabalhou silenciosamente na sabotagem das centrífugas em Natanz por cerca de um ano.
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